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何為平行結構?如何在學術寫作中使用它?

出色的英語寫作不外乎清晰的結構、合乎規範的文法使用以及良好的寫作風格。此文中要介紹的「平行結構」文體寫作技術,能將平鋪直述的句式改寫為更加清楚、流暢而精簡,還能突顯共同點、產生反差。以下有其各種功能的簡單例句和改寫後例句。

減少贅述

當文句中出現多次重複的措辭時,請檢查是否有可以使用平行結構的可能性,這能增加長句的邏輯和文章的可讀性。

例句:The purpose of this experiment is to verify the model but frequently experiment is misused to exam the performance of the product.

修改句:The purpose of this experiment is to verify the model and not to exam the performance of the product.

創造共振感

一句不具備韻律且語氣無力的論述可以因為平行結構的使用而立刻生動有力起來。同性質詞語疊加的同時,注意第二個詞是韻律共振的來源,若是有數個詞可以選,選擇最具排比性的詞放在第二位能增加共振,將最不工整的詞放最首或最末。

例句: Signal of co-membership turning into communities of wealth or knowledge is displayed in the possession of goods, how people talk, their habits and manners.

修改句: It is displayed in conversation, habits, manners, and in the possession of goods, which signal co-membership into communities of wealth or knowledge.

觀點的統一

正確的使用平行結構能打破虛假比較的格式,並且增加統一的觀點。英語寫作中常犯的錯誤,往往勢將兩個觀點的結合與統一觀點的論述搞混,而平行結構此時是很好的寫作和檢視方式。

例句:Number of publications under performance based scheme in New Zealand increased 40% in the past 5 years, compared to the increased of the number of research faculty is about 20%.

修改句:Number of publications under performance based scheme in New Zealand increased 40% in the past 5 years, while research faculty increased about 20%.

總結性言論

使用平行子句以做出總結性言論,有強調和共振作用,然而這種用法與贅述只有一步之遙,所以在決定段落章節中使用的位置和數量時都需要謹慎三思。

例句:herbicide-resistant crop pesticide is undesirable because it creates resistant weeds, because it changes soil properties and because it endangers public health.

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