學術寫作技巧, 關鍵技巧

善用圖片與圖示

相信大家都同意,「看圖說話」要比閱讀一大堆文字來得清楚明瞭。在科學寫作中,經常涉及龐大的數據、專門的理論、特殊的試驗設計等,更是難以用文字逐一描述,因此,善用圖片與圖示更顯重要。

在「如何善用圖表? 」一文中,我們探討過製圖的技巧,本文則是就「實用面」來看,究竟在投稿期刊時,怎麼樣的圖片與圖示才容易被接受呢?

我們以 Journal of Ecology 的規定為例,整理出以下幾個重點,提供參考。

1. The legend should give enough detail so that the figure can be understood without reference to the text.
所有圖片的說明務必要仔細明確,讓讀者不需要閱讀文章內容,就能瞭解該圖的意義。

2. Please ensure that artwork is prepared to fit across one or two columns or two-thirds width (71 mm, 149 mm or 109 mm, respectively)…. If figures are prepared that will require reduction, please ensure that symbols, labels, axes text, etc., are large enough to allow reduction to a final size of about 8 point, i.e. capital letters will be about 2 mm tall.
要注意圖片的大小,以及圖片中說明文字的大小,例如:用 Excel 作圖時,可選擇文字配合圖片大小改變的功能(即文字大小非固定,圖片放越大文字也越大,圖片縮越小文字也越小),必須注意圖片縮放到規定大小時,文字說明是不是仍然清晰可讀?!

3. Lettering should use a sans serif font (e.g. Helvetica or Arial) with capitals used for the initial letter of the first word only.
學術英文寫作的字型/字體要注意,經常會選用 sans serif(本文英數文字採用 Arial 字型 ,即為 sans serif 的一種。詳細說明可參考維基百科),也就是相對於中文的「黑體字」。一般而言,這類字體也常用於海報發表、簡報投影片上,因為這類字體具備清晰、不易混淆的優點。另外,英文寫作時還要特別注意字首大寫。

4. Use greyscales (e.g. 0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100%) in preference to pattern fills where possible. If colour figures are submitted for colour online publication only, ensure that after conversion to greyscale they remain entirely intelligible for the black-and-white print publication of your paper.
一般紙本印刷的期刊內容以黑白為主,線上刊出的文章則不受限。因此,作圖時要考慮黑白印刷的可行性,最好採用灰階表示,並注意兩色間的差距要明顯,以免讀者產生誤解。

5. The cost for colour printing must be met by the author (currently £150 for the first figure, £50 thereafter, exclusive of VAT). If no funds are available to cover colour printing costs, the journal offers free colour reproduction online (with black-and-white reproduction in print).
如果一定要用彩色圖片或圖示,必須考慮衍生出來的費用。以此期刊 Journal of Ecology 而言,第一個彩圖收費 150 英鎊(將近新台幣 7500 元!!),之後每個圖為 50 英鎊(約新台幣 2500 元),費用由作者負擔。如果作者本身沒有這筆經費,期刊只能提供線上彩色版本,書面印刷仍然只有黑白。

圖片與圖示的確是學術論文寫作非常重要的部分,作圖通常也耗費許多時間與精力,進入期刊投稿階段時,更要顧慮到期刊投稿規定,因此,委請專業製圖編輯服務來把關,絕對可以事半功倍!

 

參考資料:
Journal of Ecology 投稿說明
Enago 學術英文編修服務

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