學術寫作, 學術寫作技巧, 關鍵技巧

常見標點符號其實不簡單

小時候在國語課上一定都有這種經驗:老師讓大家在沒有任何標點符號的句子中練習添加標點符號,然後神奇的發現加錯了符號加錯了位置,整個文意的都變得不同了。

英文寫作其實也是一樣的,標點符號看起來不起眼,卻能夠在不經意間扭曲了你的原意,還可能毀掉了你費盡心力完成的論文大作…

以下是幾個英文寫作時最常見,也最讓人頭痛的標點符號。

逗號

逗號的基本用法想必大家都覺得沒什麼了不起之處,但語言學家光是逗號就整理出幾十種不同用法,有些特別容易造成困擾的用法,下面來舉例說明。

  1. 1.       介紹語的斷句用法

例如:For the Stop RT, there was a significant condition X group interaction (F = 8.78 (1, 38) P < 0.01).

此類用法在介紹語/詞組/先於主句的子句之後使用逗號,使用起來之所以特殊,是因為此時逗號就就像是說話的人在大聲介紹時會在句子裡的停頓一樣。

  1. 2.       括號用法

例句:Pumped storage, a type of hydropower that works like a battery, stores the electricity generated by other power sources like solar, wind, and nuclear for later use.

此處逗號用法就像是括號一樣,用來當做同位語的的斷句,這裡Pumped storage等於a type of hydropower that works like a battery。

  1. 3.        列表用法

上面例句最後的兩個逗號就是列表用法的最基本範例,這用法看似簡單,但也有容易混淆之處。

例句:We reviewed all the data, equipment status, and results. 這時是代表三件事作為分開的部份都被審核過了。We reviewed all the data, equipment status and end results. 這則代表了審核的了數據,而數據內容則是儀器狀態和最終結果。

  1. 4.       省略用法

逗號也常被使用來省略”and”或其他平行格式的標誌,下面例子中最後的逗號代表了被省略的” and Khit San was”

例句:Khit San was Burma’s first “experimental” poetry movement, notable for the inclusion of everyday language.

破折號

破折號通常使用來打斷需要強調的詞句,具有比普通逗號和括號更重的語調。

例句: When people think of hydropower, they think about the three gorges dam  — a huge facility with power to hold off a river– but hydropower facilities can be tiny too.

括號

與破折號相反,括號是用來間斷無關緊要的內容,所以當括號中的內容被刪除句子就不完整時,你就需要考慮將內容加入正文之中了。

例句:If any freely available full-text version (including drafts, preprints, and post-prints) was available, the article was considered to be open access.

 

總的來說,如果你發現你正在寫一個非常長的長句,其中要用到許多不同的標點符號,那麼你估計一次性想說的東西太多了,這不僅僅會讓你自己寫的痛苦,也會讓讀者看的痛苦。精簡卻正確的使用標點符號,能讓你將你寶貴的想法更好的傳達給審稿人和所有潛在讀者們。

 

發表於: 學術寫作, 學術寫作技巧, 關鍵技巧   標籤: , , ,
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