學術寫作技巧, 英語小常識

英文標點符號使用簡介(一)

標點符號的功能可歸類為:
(一)幫助了解:適當使用標點符號,讓讀者ㄧ目瞭然,不需花費太多力氣去研判文意。
(二)不致誤會:中文標錯句讀而引起的笑話層出不窮,英文寫作也是一樣,錯誤的標點符號
容易使人會錯意,故亦需非常謹慎使用。
(三)節省時間:文章加上標點符號 ,可節省閱讀的時間。
(四)增加趣味:標點符號有助於表達情緒,使人閱讀起來更能投入文章的情境。

因此,在寫作英文學術論文,或是投稿期刊時,務必要正確使用標點符號,才能確實表達出真正的意思。首先,我們整理出英文寫作中常見的標點符號,逐一來探討如何正確使用:

1. 句號 (Full stop/Period, “ . “)

  • 句號用於一句話完全結束時。
  • 句號用於英文名詞的縮寫,如 Mrs.(Mistress)、Dr.(Doctor)、P.S.(PostScript) 等。但當縮寫的字母形成一個名詞時,不需要使用句號,如 IBM、DNA等。

2. 逗號 (Comma, “ , ”)

  • 逗號用於分隔一系列的簡單內容,如:Total nitrogen, nitrate and nitrite had been tested.
  • 逗號用於分隔名詞的數個形容詞間,如:a small, fancy bike.
  • 逗號用於連接兩個較長的獨立句子,且句子的主語不同,如:Species A had strong effects on this ecosystem, and Species B also had certain significant effects.
  • 逗號用於相關聯的子句間,例如:Since he’s your younger brother, please take care of him.
  • 逗號用於一個較長的修飾句後,如:In the middle of the coldest winter on record, the pipes froze.
  • 逗號用於直接引用的句子前,如:Mary said, “Let’s go fishing.” 若句中含有間接引用,則不需要逗號,例如:Mary said we should go fishing.
  • 逗號用在反問句之前,如:He worked very hard, didn’t he?

3. 問號 (Question mark, “ ? ”)

  • 問號用在直接問句後方,而非間接問句,例如:How will you solve this problem?
  • 注意: I wonder how you will solve this problem.

4. 驚嘆號 (Exclamation mark, “ ! ”)

  • 驚嘆號用於感歎和驚訝的敘述句後。

更多標點符號的探討,請見「英文標點符號使用簡介(二)」、「英文標點符號使用簡介(三)」。如果想了解其他美式英文與英式英文的差異,請見學術論文編修專家Enago英論閣部落格中「美式英文與英式英文的差異」。

 

參考資料:
論文編修系統內部資料
Lynne Truss. 2003. Eats, Shoots & Leaves: The Zero Tolerance Approach to Punctuation. Profile Books, UK.

發表於: 學術寫作技巧, 英語小常識   標籤: , , , ,
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